Archive for the ‘Global Democracy’ Category

The Protector’s Choice – An Application of Protection Theory to Somali Piracy Shortland A and Varese F (2014)

The article published online in the British Journal of Criminology provides some intriguing fresh insights concerning Somali Maritime Piracy, criminality and legalised trade relationship with local clans and communities.

The research paper asks the question -“What explains the variation in piracy along the coasts of Somalia?” The authors Anja Shortland and Federico Varese answer this question by drawing upon Protection Theory and a new data set of piracy incidents. The literature spans several disciplines and suggests analytical links between the behaviour of states and that of criminal groups.

We recommend you read the following related articles highlighting this publication:

BBC Africa article ‘Somali Piracy: Roads Better than Warships.’ 10 July 2014

The Economist 12 July 2014 ‘Pirates v economists: A new weapon against Somali bandits: free trade.’


Anja Shortland is a Reader in Political Economy and Director of Postgraduate Research in the Department of Political Economy, King’s College London

Federico Varese is an Author and Professor in Criminology at Oxford University

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies

South Africa – National and Provincial Elections Results May 2014

The African National Congress won the majority of seats in  South Africa’s National and Provincial Elections May 2014.

Based on Provisional results released by the Electoral Commission of South African on 12 May 2014 they achieved 62.15% of the votes with the Democratic Alliance (DA) 22.3% and the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) 6.35%. Turnout was 73.43%.

Source: Electoral Commission of South Africa Provisional Results

South Africa National and Provincial Elections 7 May 2014

It will be a proud day as South Africans vote in National and Provincial Elections.

South Africa holds elections every 5 years. Voters vote for a political party, not individuals. The political party then gets a share of 400 seats in the South African Parliament in direct proportion to the number of votes it got in the election – That is they have a proportion representation system. (Source: South Africa Electoral Commission)

The South Africa Electoral Commission is the body created by the Constitution of South Africa to organise manage free and fair elections at all levels of government. Although publicly funded and accountable to parliament, we are independent of the government.”  (Source: South Africa Electoral Commission).

Recommended -For Results and News of the South African Elections 2014 visit


South Africa has a bicameral Parliament (two Houses) supported by a joint administration. The National Assembly is the House directly elected by the voters, while the National Council of Provinces is elected by the provinces and represents them to ensure that provincial interests are taken into account in the national sphere of government. (Source: Parliament of The Republic of South Africa)

 National Assembly

The South African National Assembly has 400 members. The number of seats that a party has in the Assembly is in proportion to the number of voters that voted for it in the elections.

The National Council of Provinces (NCOP)

The South African National Council of Provinces (NCOP), one of the two Houses of Parliament, came into effect in 1997. The NCOP is constitutionally mandated to ensure that provincial interests are taken into account in the national sphere of government.  This is done through participation in the national legislative process and by providing a national forum for consideration of issues affecting provinces.

The NCOP also plays a unique role in the promotion of the principles of Cooperative Government and Intergovernmental Relations.  It ensures that the three spheres of government work together in performing their unique functions in terms of the Constitution and that in doing so, they do not encroach in each other’s area of competence.

This ensures that synergy exists between the spheres on matters of concurrent competence.

(Source: Parliament of South Africa –

Composition of the NCOP

The NCOP consists of 90 provincial delegates, i.e. 10 delegates for each of the nine provinces.  This means that each province is equally represented in the NCOP.

A provincial delegation consists of six permanent delegates and four special delegates.

There were approximately 200 political parties registered in South Africa in May 2014, 152were national parties and 48 provincial (regional parties).

Number of Registered Political Parties in South Africa May 2014

(Source: South Africa Electoral Commission)

Registered Parties


Number of Parties



Eastern   Cape


Free   State








Northern   Cape




North   West


Western   Cape


TOTAL: 200

(Source: South Africa Electoral Commission-


Death of Nelson Mandela 5th December 2013

One of the world’s most inspirational leaders and Father of South Africa Nelson Mandela died peacefully on 5th December 2013 after a long illness. At the age of 95 Nelson Mandela brought democracy to South Africa, through a spirit of forgiveness and reconciliation. Jailed for over 27 years he had only love and compassion for his jailers. “Never and never again …” was his clarion call against oppression. He did not win the battle against apartheid by himself. He worked with many people of all colours and creed, many known and sadly others now forgotten. February 11 1990 was the culmination of many people’s answer to prayer. The day he was released from prison. A few years later on 10 May 1994 he became President of South Africa – The Rainbow Nation. Here was a person who embodied the message of “Love your neighbour and Love your enemies.”  The world will truly miss him and all that he stood for.

William Ang’awa 5 December 2013

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